Citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad del clorhidrato de octenidina sobre células humanas

Carlos Galván-Caudillo, René Hernández-Delgadillo, Gustavo Martínez-González, Claudio Cabral-Romero

Resumen


El clorhidrato de  octenidina se emplea como ingrediente principal de enjuagues bucales debido a sus  propiedades bactericidas y antibiopelícula. Aunque la octenidina es ampliamente utilizada, no hay reportes previos que indiquen su posible efecto tóxico en los seres humanos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la citotoxicidad de la octenidina en las células epiteliales humanas (HeLa). Células HeLa fueron cultivadas y expuestas a varias concentraciones de octenidina y la viabilidad celular se midió mediante ensayos de MTT. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que no había células vivas después de 24 hrs de incubación al ser tratadas con 0,0125 a 0,05% de octenidina. Sorprendentemente,  las mismas concentraciones de octenidina tuvieron un efecto citotóxico en todas las células HeLa después de sólo 5 minutos de exposición. Estos datos fueron apoyados por la observación de las mismas cultivadas con octenidina mediante microscopía de fluorescencia, que indicaron el daño sobre la membrana plasmática, probablemente alterando su permeabilidad. Empleando ensayos de genotoxicidad, se encontró que la octenidina causa lesiones al ADN genómico. Las concentraciones más bajas de octenidina indujeron un aumento de los niveles de IL-6. Sin embargo, no promueve la apoptosis entre las células epiteliales. Como conclusión; la octenidina es altamente tóxico en las células humanas, por lo tanto los efectos benéficos y nocivos de la octenidina en los seres humanos deben ser valorados en estudios in vivo.

Palabras clave


Citotoxicidad

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Referencias


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